Balcanica - Annual of the Institute for Balkan Studies 2023-03-01T11:24:28+00:00 Institute for Balkan Studies Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts Open Journal Systems <div class="pkpFormField__heading">The Balcanica is an annual, peer-reviewed journal of the interdisciplinary <a href="">Institute for Balkan Studies</a> of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (SASA). Their histories have been intertwined since 1934 when King Alexander of Yugoslavia founded the Balkan Institute in Belgrade as the only of its kind in the region. The newly-founded institute started to publish Revue internationale des Etudes balkaniques, a high-profile scholarly outlet that disseminated the findings of the most prominent European experts on the Balkans. This journal was terminated, along with the work of the institute itself, in 1941 by the order of the German occupation authorities. It was not before 1969 that the institute resumed its scholarly activities under its present-day name and within the framework of the SASA. The Balcanica became a principal platform for publishing the results of Serbian (and former Yugoslav) scholars as well as their foreign colleagues interested in different aspects of Balkan studies. Today, more than ever, Balcanica reflects the original aspirations of its founders: its aim is to publish articles of the highest standard which deal with the Balkans from prehistoric times to modern age and through the prism of a number of disciplines. These encompass archaeology, anthropology, ethnography, history, art history, linguistics, literature, law. Such orientation perfectly fits with the most recent scholarly trends in humanities and it will contribute, along with other sustained efforts to further advance the quality and impact of its issues, to Balcanica’s finding its place among the top internationally-renowned journals of this kind. In order to increase our visibility and reach as wide readership as possible, the Balcanica is published in English language with the exception of a small number of articles written in French or German.</div> Three Votive Plaques from Upper Moesia 2022-11-20T19:29:17+00:00 Dragana Nikolić <p>The article proposes a new reading and interpretation of three inscriptions engraved on small bronze plaques in the shape of tabula ansata from the Danubian limes in Upper Moesia — two from Pincum and one from Viminacium, associating the inscribed objects with the cult of Jupiter Dolichenus. The revised inscriptions also provide new data on the Roman units stationed on the Upper Moesian Danube bank, as two of the dedicators are identified as members of the ala Flaviana. </p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 A Hypothesis about the Origin of Záviš’s Cross (or about a Lost Serbian Reliquary) 2022-10-28T14:22:59+00:00 Ivana Komatina <p>The documents testifying to the conflict between Serbian king Stefan Uroš I (1242/1243–1276) and Hungarian king Béla IV (1235–1270) from the 1260s also bring news about the Serbian king’s reliquary that was seized at the time. Following the destiny and specificities of Záviš’s cross, we indicate the possibility of this being the same precious item.</p> 2020-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Balcanica Experiencing Disease and Medical Treatment in Renaissance Italy: Cardinal Pietro Bembo and his Circle 2023-02-09T17:46:15+00:00 John Henderson Jh101@​cam.​ Valentina Živković <p>This article, which examines contemporaries’ personal experience of illness in Renaissance&nbsp;Italy, is part of a growing literature which concentrates on the patient rather&nbsp;than the practitioner. The basis of this study is the correspondence of Pietro Bembo, the&nbsp;well-known humanist, papal secretary and latterly Cardinal, with his cousin Gian Matteo&nbsp;Bembo and his long-standing secretary and friend, Cola Bruno. These letters are revealing&nbsp;of how a non-medical man understood and described illness in the sixteenth century, and&nbsp;his personal experience associated particularly with “mal delle reni”, which he shared with&nbsp;his friends and recommended treatments. It also reveals his attitude towards medical practitioners,&nbsp;ranging from scepticism to fully embracing new therapies such as Holy Wood,&nbsp;which was used to treat the new epidemic disease of the Great Pox. Indeed he shared&nbsp;his enthusiasm for the efficacy of this drug with his great friend the physician Girolamo&nbsp;Fracastoro, the author of Syphilis, the poem which he dedicated to Bembo, and also of the&nbsp;treatise De contagione et contagiosis morbis (1546).</p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Second Eastern Crisis (1875–1878): Echoes, Volunteers and Italian Interests 2023-02-09T17:36:32+00:00 Francesco Guida <div class="page" title="Page 2"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The actions of Balkan insurgents during Eastern Crisis of 1875–1878 were closely followed by Giuseppe Garibaldi and his supporters as well as by the Italian politicians and writers that were a part Mazzini’s school of thought. Garibaldi actively sustained the insurgents and his red shirts went to fight in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the first year of the Crisis. When the uprising evolved into a war of Serbia and Montenegro against the Ottomans the involvement of red shirts as well as the one of volunteers in general was con- siderable reduced, with the exception of the Russian contingent under the commandment of the Russian general Mikhail Chernyaev. However, the interest for the ongoing devel- opments in the Bosnia and Herzegovina only changed the form, since Italian politicians and journalists made several projects trying to mobilize Italian general public to support South Slav cause. The Venetian writer Marco Antonio Canini even imagined a confederal solution for the nations in the Danube basin thus trying to overcome the conflicts between the nascent nationalisms that could dispute among them the territorial heritage of the Austria-Hungary after its projected demise. None of the projects were put in practice, but they remain as testimony of Italian interest and involvement into the Great Eastern Crisis and its consequences</p> </div> </div> </div> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Opening of the Italian Legation in Belgrade in 1879 and Relations between Serbs and Italians in the 19th Century 2023-02-09T18:06:12+00:00 Antonio D’Alessandri <p>This essay focuses on the opening of the Italian diplomatic Legation in Belgrade in&nbsp;1879 after the Serbia’s independence. This new beginning of the Serbian-Italian political&nbsp;relations is seen in the framework of the reorientation of the Italian foreign policy after&nbsp;the fall of the French Second Empire and the rise of the Imperial Germany. A great role in&nbsp;this process was played by Count Giuseppe Tornielli Brusati di Vergano, former Secretary&nbsp;General of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Italian Kingdom. He was entrusted to&nbsp;open the Italian Legation in Belgrade and in Bucharest, thus inaugurating a new phase&nbsp;of the Italian action in South-eastern Europe and the Eastern affairs. This question is&nbsp;analyzed in a broader chronological space such as the long tradition of cultural and political&nbsp;exchanges between Serbs and Italians during the epoch of the national Risorgimento.</p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Movies about the First World War: Shaping the Collective Memory. Cases of Serbian/Yugoslav and Greek Cinematography 2023-02-09T18:11:38+00:00 Jasmina I. Tomašević <p style="font-weight: 400;">The First World War brought radical changes to the political map of Europe andtook more than 15 million lives on both warring sides. This conflict of unprecedented proportions has left deep traces on the lives of people who found themselves in a whirlwind of war. Therefore, it is no wonder that the theme of war was present in various types of human creativity – through literature (especially autobiographical genres), art, but also popular culture, where movies rightly took centre stage. Even during the period 1914–1918, the film became the main weapon of propaganda. Through this instrument, the message was able to reach quickly a large number of people, regardless of their social status and level of education. After 1918, the film served as a popular medium through which the memory of war events was preserved. The first movies exuded the anti-war spirit at the moment when post-war Europe was facing long-term economic consequences that had surfaced. Pacifist messages could be seen in different film productions, which to a large extent looked up to Hollywood, the most significant film industry in the world. The same was in the case of smaller allied countries such as Greece and Serbia, which both paved a different path of development due to the complexity of historical processes conducted in these Balkan countries. This paper aims to point out these different developments and shed light on lesser-known facts about Yugoslav and Greek WWI cinematography.</p> <p>collective memory, , , ,&nbsp;</p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The March on Rome and its Consequences. Views of Yugoslav Contemporaries 2023-02-09T18:17:31+00:00 Milan Ristović <p>This paper looks at the Yugoslav public’s reactions to the rise of fascism and Mussolini’s&nbsp;coming to power in Italy. The main source for the analysis of this change at the&nbsp;top of power structure have been texts published in the contemporary Serbian, Croatian&nbsp;and Slovenian daily press, periodicals and publications. Among their authors were active&nbsp;diplomats of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, influential political figures of&nbsp;diverse political leanings. Observation of the rise of fascism, its violent “methodology” of&nbsp;disposing of its political rivals, the misplaced response of the traditional centres of power&nbsp;and the ceding of ground to the fascists caused concern on the east side of the Adriatic over&nbsp;further radicalization of Italian nationalism and irredentist claims in spite of the obligations&nbsp;assumed under the treaties concluded by the two governments.</p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Italy in the Writings of Slobodan Jovanović 2023-02-09T18:23:33+00:00 Boris Milosavljević <p>Slobodan Jovanović made frequent stays in Italy since his earliest childhood, which&nbsp;contributed to his thorough and comprehensive understanding of Italian history, politics,&nbsp;science, culture and arts. His father, Vladimir Jovanović, maintained close contact with&nbsp;Mazzini, whose liberal nationalism he embraced and followed. Some of their closest family&nbsp;members resided in Rome during the First World War, because Vladimir Jovanović’s sonin-law, Mihailo Ristić, served as Serbia’s minister to Italy (1914–17). For about half a century&nbsp;Slobodan Jovanović was an interpreter of Italian political history, of its influence on&nbsp;Serbian and Yugoslav history, and of the work of Italian statesmen and theorists, notably&nbsp;Machiavelli. In the 1930s he taught a doctoral course on Italian public law and corporate&nbsp;system. After the Second World War he lived in exile in London. Some of the works he&nbsp;published there showed that some solutions in the constitution of socialist Yugoslavia,&nbsp;presented as an original invention, had already existed in interwar Italian corporate law.</p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Yugoslav-Italian Foreign Trade Relations 1919–1939 and the Yugoslav Industry: The Import of Textile Products from Italy 2023-02-09T18:35:35+00:00 Jelena Rafailović <p>Yugoslav-Italian relations between two world wars, besides the diplomatic-political,&nbsp;also had a very signifi cant economic aspect. Italy was one of the most important&nbsp;foreign trade partners of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and this paper will explore the trade&nbsp;exchange between the two countries, especially the import of materials necessary for the&nbsp;textile industry, which substantially contributed to the positive balance of trade. Beside a&nbsp;quantitative analysis of statistical data regarding foreign trade, the paper also looks at the&nbsp;impact of political and economic events on the trade relations between the two countries,&nbsp;as well as the relation between the industrialization of Yugoslavia and changes in foreign&nbsp;trade.</p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Venice Biennale and Art in Belgrade in the 1950s. A Contribution to the Study of the Artistic Dialogue between Italy and Serbia 2023-02-13T16:16:41+00:00 Ana Ereš <p>Throughout the twentieth century the International Art Exhibition Venice Biennale&nbsp;was seen as a major event by the art world of Belgrade and, more broadly, of Serbia&nbsp;and Yugoslavia. After the Second World War this biggest and most important international&nbsp;show of contemporary art provided Belgrade’s artists and art critics with an opportunity&nbsp;to acquaint themselves with the latest developments on the international art scene. At&nbsp;the same time, it was used as a platform for the leading figures of Belgrade’s artistic and&nbsp;cultural-policy establishment to create, through the exhibitions mounted in the national&nbsp;pavilion, an image of the country’s artistic contemporaneity aimed at achieving its desired&nbsp;standing in the West. The attitude of Belgrade’s art scene to the Venice Biennale went&nbsp;through a articularly interesting phase in the 1950s. Its transformations offer an opportunity&nbsp;to observe, analyse and expand the knowledge about the changes that marked that&nbsp;turbulent decade in the history of Serbian art, which went a long way from dogmatically&nbsp;exclusive socialist realism to the institutionalization of a high-modernist language as the&nbsp;dominant model. Based on the reconstruction of Yugoslavia’s sustained participation in&nbsp;the Venice Biennale (1950–60), this paper analyses the models of the representation of&nbsp;Serbian art in the international context of the Biennale within a broader context of the&nbsp;intensification of Serbian-Italian artistic contacts during the period under study.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Two Last Encounters between Broz and Berlinguer – the Epilogue of an Alliance 2023-02-13T16:25:09+00:00 Bogdan Živković <p>Based on unpublished historical sources from the archives of the communist parties&nbsp;of Yugoslavia and Italy (Archives of Yugoslavia, Belgrade; Fondazione Istituto Gramsci,&nbsp;Archivio del Partito comunista Italiano, Rome), this paper analyzes the two last meetings&nbsp;of the leaders of the two parties, Josip Broz Tito and Enrico Berlinguer. The topics&nbsp;are Berlinguer’s two visits to Yugoslavia, in October 1977 and October 1978, which took&nbsp;place at the height of the inter-party alliance, after the Berlin Conference of the Communist&nbsp;Parties of Europe held in June 1976. The aforementioned two visits are viewed in this&nbsp;paper as case studies that testify to the nature of the alliance between the two parties, and&nbsp;illuminate the key similarities and differences between these two political actors.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 The Yugoslav Perspective on Italian Eurocommunism in the Second Half of the 1970s 2023-02-22T17:01:48+00:00 Petar Dragišić <p>The article outlines the key elements of the Yugoslav perceptions of the Italian&nbsp;Communist Party’s (PCI) ideological and political orientation during its Eurocommunist&nbsp;phase. In addition, it investigates the relationship between the League of Communists of&nbsp;Yugoslavia and PCI in the latter half of the 1970s. The article is primarily based on an&nbsp;analysis of Yugoslav archival sources and press materials.&nbsp;</p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dan Dana, Onomasticon Thracicum. Répertoire des noms indigènes de Thrace, Macédoine orientale, Mésies, Dacie et Bithynie 2023-03-01T09:50:21+00:00 Danilo Savić <p><em>Danilo Savić</em>: Dan Dana, <em>Onomasticon Thracicum. Répertoire des noms indigènes de Thrace, Macédoine orientale, Mésies, Dacie et Bithynie</em></p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Eugenia Beu-Dachin, The Latin language in the inscriptions of Roman Dacia. 2023-03-01T09:55:13+00:00 Jelena Vukojević <p>Jelena Vukojević: Eugenia Beu-Dachin, The Latin language in the inscriptions of Roman Dacia.</p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Tudor Dinu, Revoluția Greacă de la 1821 pe teritoriul Moldovei și Țării Românești 2023-03-01T09:59:11+00:00 Marija Milinković <p><em>Marija Milinković</em>: Tudor Dinu, <em>Revoluția Greacă de la 1821 pe teritoriul Moldovei și Țării Românești</em></p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Paul Miller-Melamed, Misfire: The Sarajevo Assassination and the Winding Road to World War I 2023-03-01T10:02:22+00:00 John Zametica <p><em>John Zametica</em>: Paul Miller-Melamed, <em>Misfire: The Sarajevo Assassination and the Winding Road to World War I</em></p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Mark D. Chapman and Bogdan Lubardić [eds.], Serbia and the Church of England: The First World War and a New Ecumenism 2023-03-01T10:05:53+00:00 Aleksandra Djurić Milovanović <p><em>Aleksandra Djurić Milovanović:</em> Mark D. Chapman and Bogdan Lubardić [eds.], <em>Serbia and the Church of England: The First World War and a New Ecumenism</em></p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Slobodan G. Markovich [ed.], Freemasonry in Southeast Europe from the 19th to the 21st Centuries 2023-03-01T10:09:27+00:00 Petar S. Ćurčić <p><em>Petar S. Ćurčić: Slobodan G. Markovich [ed.], Freemasonry in Southeast Europe from the 19th to the 21st Centuries</em></p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 John r. Lampe and Constantin Iordachi [eds.], Battling Over the Balkans: Historiographical Questions and Controversies 2023-03-01T10:11:50+00:00 Anđelija Miladinović <p><em>Anđelija Miladinović</em>: John r. Lampe and Constantin Iordachi [eds.], <em>Battling Over the Balkans: Historiographical Questions and Controversies</em></p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Slobodan Vuković, Koreni velikog rata i nacizma 2023-03-01T11:09:17+00:00 Bogdan Živković <p class="Sadrzaj"><em>Bogdan Živković</em>: Slobodan Vuković, <em>Koreni velikog rata i nacizma</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Alberto Basciani, Egidio Ivetic, Italia e Balcani 2023-03-01T11:12:55+00:00 Bogdan Živković <p><em>Bogdan Živković</em>: Alberto Basciani, Egidio Ivetic,<em> Italia e Balcani</em></p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Luciano Monzali, Federico Imperato, Rosario Milano, Giuseppe Spagnulo, Storia delle relazioni internazionali (1919–2021). Tra Stati nazionali, potenze continentali e organizzazioni sovranazionali 2023-03-01T11:16:08+00:00 Bogdan Živković <p class="Sadrzaj"><em>Bogdan Živković</em>: Luciano Monzali, Federico Imperato, Rosario Milano, Giuseppe Spagnulo, <em>Storia delle relazioni internazionali (1919–2021). Tra Stati nazionali, potenze continentali e organizzazioni sovranazionali</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Aleksandra Djurić Milovanović, Radmila Radić [eds.], Orthodox Christian Renewal Movements in Eastern Europe 2023-03-01T11:19:17+00:00 Marko Galić <p><em>Marko Galić</em>: Aleksandra Djurić Milovanović, Radmila Radić [eds.], <em>Orthodox Christian Renewal Movements in Eastern Europe</em></p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Annemarie Sorescu-Marinković, Mihai Dragnea, Thede Kahl, Blagovest Njagulov, Donald L. Dyer and Angelo Costanzo [eds.] The Romance-speaking Balkans: Language and the Politics of Identity 2023-03-01T11:24:28+00:00 Panagiotis G. Krimpas <p><em>Panagiotis G. Krimpas</em>: Annemarie Sorescu-Marinković, Mihai Dragnea, Thede Kahl, Blagovest Njagulov, Donald L. Dyer and Angelo Costanzo [eds.] <em>The Romance-speaking Balkans: Language and the Politics of Identity</em></p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Đorđe S. Kostić 2023-02-22T19:01:40+00:00 Ljubodrag P. Ristić <p><em>In memoriam</em> Đorđe S. Kostić</p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Spyridon Sfetas 2023-02-22T19:06:03+00:00 Jasmina Tomašević <p><em>In memoriam</em> Spyridon Sfetas&nbsp;(1960—2021)</p> 2023-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022